What does “GBP” mean ?

July 29, 2014

GBP - The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known simply as the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence (singular: penny). A number of nations that do not use sterling also have currencies called the pound. At various times, the pound sterling was commodity money or bank notes backed by silver or gold, but it is currently fiat money, backed only by the economy in the areas where it is accepted.

The British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and Jersey produce their own local issues of sterling: “Guernsey pound” and “Jersey pound”. The pound sterling is also used in the Isle of Man (alongside the Manx pound), Gibraltar (alongside the Gibraltar pound), the Falkland Islands (alongside the Falkland Islands pound), and Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (alongside the Saint Helena pound). Manx, Gibraltar, Falkland Islands and Saint Helena pounds are separate currencies, pegged at parity to the pound sterling.[citation needed] The Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, and regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England; local governments use Bank of England notes as backing for local issuance by allowing them to be exchanged 1:1 at face value.

Sterling is the fourth most traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro, and the Japanese yen. Together with those three currencies it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights, with an 11.3% weighting as of 2011[update] (USD 41.9%, Euro 37.4%, Yen 9.4%). Sterling is also the third most held reserve currency in global reserves (about 4%).

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Source: Wikipedia


What is “Dreamweaver” ?

July 22, 2014

Dreamweaver – A proprietary web development tool developed by Adobe Systems. Dreamweaver was created by Macromedia in 1997, and was maintained by them until Macromedia was acquired by Adobe Systems in 2005. Adobe Dreamweaver is available for both OS X and Windows.

Following Adobe’s acquisition of the Macromedia product suite, releases of Dreamweaver subsequent to version 8.0 have been more compliant with W3C standards. Recent versions have improved support for Web technologies such as CSS, JavaScript, and various server-side scripting languages and frameworks including ASP (ASP JavaScript, ASP VBScript, ASP.NET C#, ASP.NET VB), ColdFusion, Scriptlet, and PHP.

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Source: Wikipedia


What does “FTP” mean ?

July 15, 2014

File Transfer Protocol –  (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet.

FTP is built on a client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS). SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) is sometimes also used instead, but is technologically different.

The first FTP client applications were command-line applications developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems.[2][3] Many FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into productivity applications, such as Web page editors.

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Source: Wikipedia


What is “Virtual Memory” ?

July 8, 2014

Virtual Memory –  In computing, virtual memory is a memory management technique that is implemented using both hardware and software. It maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory. Main storage as seen by a process or task appears as a contiguous address space or collection of contiguous segments. The operating system manages virtual address spaces and the assignment of real memory to virtual memory. Address translation hardware in the CPU, often referred to as a memory management unit or MMU, automatically translates virtual addresses to physical addresses. Software within the operating system may extend these capabilities to provide a virtual address space that can exceed the capacity of real memory and thus reference more memory than is physically present in the computer.

The primary benefits of virtual memory include freeing applications from having to manage a shared memory space, increased security due to memory isolation, and being able to conceptually use more memory than might be physically available, using the technique of paging.

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Source: Wikipedia


What is “Data Threading” ?

July 1, 2014

Data Threading  –  In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by an operating system scheduler. The scheduler itself is a light-weight process. The implementation of threads and processes differs from one operating system to another, but in most cases, a thread is contained inside a process. Multiple threads can exist within the same process and share resources such as memory, while different processes do not share these resources. In particular, the threads of a process share the latter’s instructions (its code) and its context (the values that its variables reference at any given moment).

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Source: Wikipedia


What is a “Personal Computer” ?

June 24, 2014

Personal Computer (PC) – is a general-purpose computer, whose size, capabilities and original sale price makes it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator. This contrasted with the batch processing or time-sharing models which allowed larger, more expensive minicomputer and mainframe systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time. Large data processing systems require a full-time staff to operate efficiently.

Software applications for most personal computers include, but are not limited to, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, Web browsers and e-mail clients, digital media playback, games and myriad personal productivity and special-purpose software applications. Modern personal computers often have connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other resources. Personal computers may be connected to a local area network (LAN), either by a cable or a wireless connection. A personal computer may be a desktop computer or a laptop, tablet or a handheld PC.

Early PC owners usually had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machines, even lacking an operating system. The very earliest microcomputers, equipped with a front panel, required hand-loading of a bootstrap program to load programs from external storage (paper tape, cassettes, or eventually diskettes). Before very long, automatic booting from permanent read-only memory became universal.

Today’s users have access to a wide range of commercial software, freeware and free and open-source software, which is provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-compile form. Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with Windows. Popular alternatives to Microsoft’s Windows operating systems include Apple’s OS X and the free open-source Linux and BSD operating systems. AMD provides the major alternative to Intel’s central processing units. Applications and games for PCs are typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers, whereas software for many mobile phones and other portable systems is approved and distributed through a centralized online store.

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Source: Wikipedia


What is “CET” ?

June 17, 2014

CET (Central European Time)- which is used in most parts of the European Union, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as +01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) and under other names like Romance Standard Time.

The 15th meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones. As of 2011 all member states of the European Union observe summer time; those that use CET during the winter use Central European Summer Time (CEST), UTC+02:00, daylight saving time in summer.

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Source: Wikipedia


What is “PST” ?

June 10, 2014

PST – The Pacific Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−8). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 120th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory. During daylight saving time, its time offset is UTC−7 and is thus based on the mean solar time of the 105th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

In the United States and Canada, this time zone is generically called the Pacific Time Zone (PTZ). Specifically, it uses Pacific Standard Time (PST) – Pacific Time (PT) – when observing standard time (mid-fall through late winter), and Pacific Daylight Time (PDT) – Mountain Time (MT) – when observing daylight saving time (late winter through mid-fall). Most of Canada uses daylight saving time. In Mexico the UTC−8 time zone is known as the Northwest Zone, which is synchronized with the U.S. PDT daylight saving schedule.

The largest city in the Pacific Time Zone is Los Angeles in California from USA; the city’s metropolitan area is the largest in the zone.

The zone is one hour ahead of the Alaska Time Zone, one hour behind the Mountain Time Zone and three hours behind the Eastern Time Zone.

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Source: Wikipedia


What is a “Proxy Server” ?

June 3, 2014

Proxy Server –  is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource available from a different server and the proxy server evaluates the request as a way to simplify and control its complexity. Proxies were invented to add structure and encapsulation to distributed systems. Today, most proxies are web proxies, facilitating access to content on the World Wide Web and providing anonymity.

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Source: Wikipedia


What is “ROM” ?

May 27, 2014

ROM (Read-Only Memory) – is a class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distribute firmware (software that is very closely tied to specific hardware, and unlikely to need frequent updates).

Strictly, read-only memory refers to memory that is hard-wired, such as diode matrix and the later mask ROM. Although discrete circuits can be altered (in principle), ICs cannot and are useless if the data are bad. Despite the simplicity, speed and economies of scale of mask ROM, field-programmability often make reprogrammable memories more flexible and inexpensive. As of 2007, actual ROM circuitry is therefore mainly used for applications such as microcode, and similar structures, on various kinds of processors.

Other types of non-volatile memory such as erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM) and electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM or Flash ROM) are sometimes referred to, in an abbreviated way, as “read-only memory” (ROM); although these types of memory can be erased and re-programmed multiple times, writing to this memory takes longer and may require different procedures than reading the memory. When used in this less precise way, “ROM” indicates a non-volatile memory which serves functions typically provided by mask ROM, such as storage of program code and nonvolatile data.

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Source: Wikipedia


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